Brief on programming languages
A computer doesn’t have a brain like ours and it cannot do anything by itself. A computer cannot understand human languages, so an instruction for a task has to be told in a special computer language.
One can give an instruction to a computer which is to be carried out straight away. It is also needed to store a set of instruction which are to be carried out over and over again or at a later time. A set of instructions written in a computer language is called programming and the languages used are called the programming languages.
A programming can be stored on a disk so that it can make it available to be run when it required. Inside the computer operations are done using electronic pulses. A special program translates instructions into electronic pulses that the computer can understand. In a program the instruction contain special words and symbols and the order of the woods is very important . The pattern of electronic pulses for an instruction is called machine code.
Programming languages can be classified on the basis of generations. These are given below:
Ø First generaton: machine language (based on 1 and 0)
Ø Second generation: assembly language(based on special code)
Ø Third generation: High level language
Ø Fourth level language: nonprocedural language
SEVERAL high level language:
High Level languages are given below with short explanation
1. Basic and visual basic (VB):
BASIC (Beginners’ All-reason Symbolic Instruction Code) is a group of universally useful, significant level programming dialects whose plan theory stresses usability. The first form was planned by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz and delivered at Dartmouth College in 1964. They needed to empower understudies in fields other than science and arithmetic to utilize PCs. At that point, virtually all utilization of PCs required composing custom programming, which was something just researchers and mathematicians would in general learn.
2. C and C++:
C is a basic procedural language. It was intended to be accumulated to give low-level admittance to memory and language builds that map proficiently to machine directions, all with insignificant runtime uphold. In spite of its low-level capacities, the language was intended to support cross-stage programming. A standards-compliant C program is written with the portability in mind can be compiled for a wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with few changes to its own source code.
Fortran’s plan was the reason for some other programming dialects. Among the better-known is BASIC, which depends on FORTRAN II with various punctuation cleanups, eminently better coherent structures and different changes to work all the more effectively in an intelligent climate. Fortran incorporates a genealogy of renditions, every one of which developed to add expansions to the language while normally holding similarity with earlier forms. Progressive forms have added uphold for organized programming and handling of character-based information (FORTRAN 77), cluster programming, particular programming and conventional programming (Fortran 90), elite (Fortran 95), object-situated programming (Fortran 2003), simultaneous programming (Fortran 2008), and local equal registering capacities (Coarray Fortran 2008/2018).
4. PASCAL and Delphi:
Pascal is a goal and procedural programming language, planned by Niklaus Wirth as a little, proficient language expected to support great programming works on utilizing organized programming and information organizing. It is named out of appreciation for the French mathematician, savant and physicist Blaise Pascal.
COBOL articulations have an English-like grammar, which was intended to act naturally reporting and profoundly comprehensible. Notwithstanding, it is verbose and utilizes more than 300 saved words. Conversely with current, concise grammar like y = x;, COBOL has a more English-like punctuation (for this situation, MOVE x TO y).
Smalltalk is an item arranged, powerfully composed intelligent programming language. Smalltalk was made as the language supporting the “new world” of figuring exemplified by “human–PC symbiosis”. It was planned and made to a limited extent for instructive use, explicitly for constructionist learning, at the Learning Research Group (LRG) of Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Adele Goldberg, Ted Kaehler, Diana Merry, Scott Wallace, and others during the 1970s.
JAVA: It is one of the most powerful and relatively new programming languages. It is an object oriented programming languages created by Sun microsystems, is
revolutionizing the programming applications for the World Wide Web(WWW) and corporate intranets and extranets . Java is similar to the C++ and is much simpler, secure and platform independent programming language Java is also specifically designed for real-time, interactive , web-based network applications .
Java applications consisting of small application programs, called applets, can be executed by any computer and any operating system anywhere in a network. The ease of creating Java applets and distributing them from network servers to client PCs and network computers is a major reason for java’s popularity . Applets can be small special-purpose application programs. Applets are platform independent too- they can run on windows , OS/2 , UNIX, and Macintosh systems with out modifications. On the other hand
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